Since the Cold War, main battle tanks (MBTs) have evolved from simple and light to heavy, modernized and highly mobile, with advances in armament and countermeasures.
The Phil Team lists the top 10 battle tanks in the world based on their armament, mobility, and protection.
Leopard 2A7+, Germany
The Leopard 2A7+ is a next-generation main battle tank (MBT) revealed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) in 2010.
The new version is based on the technology of the Leopard 2 tank and has been adopted by the Bundeswehr (German army) to carry out combat in urban areas, as well as traditional military missions. The 2A7+ is also currently deployed in Afghanistan by Canada under NATO command.
The Leopard 2A7+ is armed with a 120mm L55 smoothbore cannon capable of firing standard NATO ammunition and new programmable 120mm HE ammunition. The tank incorporates a remote-controlled FLW 200 small arms station, which allows the mounting of a 7.62 mm/12.7 mm machine gun or a 40 mm grenade launcher.
Passive armor modules provide complete protection against anti-tank missiles, mines, improvised explosive devices (IED) and RPG fire.
Smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret conceal the tank from enemy eyes.
The tank can be fitted with additional attachments such as a mine plow, mine roller or dozer blade for mine clearing and obstacle clearance. This highly mobile tank has a maximum speed of 72 km/h and a range of 450 km.
Abrams M1A2, United States of America
The Abrams M1A2 is a combat-proven main battle tank developed by General Dynamics Land Systems primarily for the United States Army.
The tank was designed based on the experience gained from the performance of the M1A1 and incorporates new technologies to provide superior firepower and mobility, making it one of the best battle tanks in the world.
The tank's main gun is a hand-loading XM256 120mm smoothbore cannon, which can fire a range of NATO rounds against armored vehicles, infantry and low-flying aircraft.
The tank is also armed with two M240 7.62 mm machine guns and one M2 50 caliber machine gun. It can store 42 rounds of 120 mm, 11,400 rounds of 7.62 mm, 900 rounds of 50 caliber, 32 grenades scout and 210 rounds of 5.56 mm.
The Abrams M1A2 incorporates heavy composite outer armor and depleted uranium steel armor in the front hull and turret to provide a high level of protection for its crew.
The tank has a range of 426 km and can move at a maximum speed of 67.5 km/hour.
T-14 Armata, Russia
The T-14 Armata is a new generation battle tank manufactured by Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) for the Russian army. The tank is currently in production and deliveries are scheduled for 2020.
The main gun mounted on the tank is a 2A82-1M 125mm smoothbore cannon fed from an autoloader.
Secondary armament includes a 12.7mm Kord machine gun and a 7.62mm PKTM machine gun. The tank can carry 45 rounds and fire laser-guided missiles.
The T-14 Armata MBT is expected to provide Level 5 protection under STANAG 4569.
The Afghanit Active Protection System (APS) on board the tank can detect, track and engage incoming anti-tank munitions. Powered by an A-85-3A turbocharged diesel engine, the tank offers a maximum speed of 90 km/h and a range of 500 km.
Challenger 2, UK
The Challenger 2 (CR2) is the main battle tank of the British Army and the Royal Army of Oman. This main battle tank was designed and manufactured by the British company Vickers Defense Systems (now BAE Systems) based on the Challenger 1 tank.
Touted as the world's most reliable main battle tank by its producers, the Challenger 2's capabilities have been proven in combat missions in Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq.
The Challenger 2's 120mm L30 CHARM (CHaller main ARMament) cannon provides the primary firepower while a 7.62mm C-axis chain gun and turret-mounted 7.62mm machine gun serve as the primary firepower. secondary weapons.
The tank can carry 50 rounds of APFSDS (Armour Piercing, Fin Stabilised, Discarding Sabot), HESH (High-Explosive Squash Heads), and Soke rounds, as well as 4,000 rounds of 7.62 mm.
The Challenger 2's second-generation Chobham armor provides a high level of protection against direct-fire weapons. The tank's Perkins-Condor CV12 engine ensures a maximum speed of 59km/h on the road and 40km/h off-road.
K2 Black Panther, South Korea
The K2 Black Panther (Korean New Main Battle Tank) is a modern main battle tank developed by Hyundai Rotem for the Republic of Korea Army (RoKA).
The main battle tank is intended to offer high mobility, firepower and self-protection. The Black Panther entered service with the RoKA in 2014.
The K2 Black Panther's primary armament is a 120mm smoothbore cannon, which can fire advanced kinetic energy rounds and is equipped with an autoloader for on-the-spot ammunition loading, even in rough terrain. Secondary armament includes 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns.
The maximum speed of 70km/h and the range of 450km make the K2 very mobile on the battlefield. The tank is equipped with composite armor and reactive explosive armor (ERA) for full protection against direct hits. The ammo carrier is also equipped with explosion protection panels.
Merkava Mk.4, Israel
The Merkava Mark IV is the latest version of the Merkava line of main battle tanks built by MANTAK (Merkava Tank Office). The tank entered service with the Israel Defense Forces in 2004 and is considered one of the best-protected tanks in the world.
The Mk.4 is armed with a 120mm MG253 smoothbore cannon capable of firing high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) rounds and sabot rounds, as well as LAHAT anti-tank guided missiles. The pintle-mounted coaxial 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns and 60mm grenade launcher round out the tank's firepower.
The Merkava Mk.4 is equipped with special spaced armor, spring-loaded armor side skirts, Elbit laser warning system and integrated IMI smoke grenades. The Trophy active protection system on board the tank protects the crew against advanced anti-tank missiles. The tank moves at a maximum speed of 64 km/h.
Type 10 (TK-X), Japan
The Type 10 (TK-X) is a fourth-generation advanced main battle tank built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the Japan Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF). The tank entered service with the JGSDF in 2012 and boasts exceptional mobility.
The firepower of the MBT Type 10 is complemented by a 120 mm smoothbore gun, a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun and a 7.62 mm Type 74 cannon. The sophisticated C4I system ensures interoperability with infantry troops during integrated combat missions.
The tank's hull features modular ceramic composite armor providing protection against rocket propelled grenade (RPG) fire, HEAT projectiles and anti-tank missiles. Expansion modules can be easily removed and installed to change protection levels. The 1,200 hp water-cooled diesel engine allows a top speed of 70 km/h.
The Leclerc is a French main battle tank developed by GIAT Industries (now Nexter Systems) for the French army. He is also in service with the United Arab Emirates Army. The first Leclerc tank was delivered to the DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement) in January 1992.
The Leclerc is a third generation tank armed with a CN120-26 NATO standard 120mm smoothbore cannon, a coaxial 12.7mm machine gun and a roof mounted 7.62mm machine gun . The tank can carry 40 rounds of 120mm and over 950 rounds of 12.7mm.
Advanced Modular Armor, comprised of steel, ceramic, and Kevlar, provides full crew protection, which can be flipped up to protect against improvised explosive devices, mines, and RPGs.
The Galix self-protection system mounted on the tank further increases its survivability. The tank has a maximum speed of 72km/h and can hit targets at a speed of 50km/h on any terrain.
The T-90MS, a modernized version of the T-90 main battle tank built by Uralvagonzavod, was first unveiled at Russian Expo Arms in September 2011. The T-90MS has been extensively modernized to improve combat performance in current war scenarios.
The tank's 2A46M-5 125mm cannon fires various types of ammunition with high accuracy. The tank is also armed with a 6P7K 7.62mm anti-aircraft machine gun on a remote-controlled weapon station.
ERA modular panels mounted on the rear and sides of the tank provide protection against small arms and shrapnel. The front hull and turret can be fitted with RELIKT reactive armor for protection against anti-tank missiles.
The T-90MS also has an optoelectronic screen system and an electromagnetic protection system. A V-92S2F engine rated at 1130 hp provides the tank with a maximum speed of 60 km/h.
VT4 (MBT-3000), China
The VT4 tank (formerly MBT-3000) is a third generation tank designed and manufactured by China North Industries Corporation (Norinco) primarily for export markets. The tank entered service with the Royal Thai Army in 2017.
The main battle tank is armed with a 125mm smoothbore cannon capable of firing APFSDS rounds, HEAT warheads, artillery and guided missiles. Secondary armament includes a remote-controlled 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun and a coaxial 7.62mm machine gun.
The tank is equipped with composite armor and explosive reactive armour. The GL5 active protection system (APS) on board the vehicle defends tanks, armored vehicles, anti-tank guided missiles and anti-tank weapons. The maximum road speed of the VT4 MBT is 70km/h while its maximum range is 500km.